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ESTECO VOLTA: the game-changer for SPDM & collaborative Design Optimization

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Success story
American Magic perfects AC75 design for the 36th America's Cup
The America’s Cup isn’t just the first sailing competition in history, it’s also the first when it comes to innovation. Learn how American Magic engineers partnered with ESTECO to prepare for their next challenge. Using modeFRONTIER in different phases of the design process, they integrated geometry changes, performed hydrodynamic CFD simulations and explored different optimization strategies. ## New design challenges: monohulls that fly The America’s Cup is the oldest and most important trophy in sailing. What makes it unique is that the reigning champion gets to decide the rules for the next edition, like the date and the location. More importantly, it defines boat class and design rules. The 33rd America’s cup in 2010 pushed the boundaries of boat design by introducing new technologies, design concepts and materials. When BMW Oracle pitted its 34-meter trimaran and 55-meter high rigid wing against Alinghi in the first regatta, it won by 15 minutes, sailing at more than 18 knots in 8 knots of wind. The 36th America’s Cup builds on changes to previous edition class rules with a new boat concept: a monohull racing boat that doesn’t sacrifice the concept of flying boats. Two t-shaped side foils guarantee that the boat flies above the water. Engineers can’t rely on previous experience and now find themselves having to design a completely new boat. Moreover, competition rules allow teams to design only certain parts of the boat, like foil wings, sails, hulls and systems, while others must be designed by third parties. Whereas the foil wing structure and profile can be designed by teams, the arm structure is determined, designed, and built by a supplier company. American Magic is using ESTECO technology in each phase of the design process, from concept to the refinement of foils and sails. Specifically it uses modeFRONTIER. Its process automation, intelligent algorithms and advanced post-processing capabilities enable engineers to deliver optimized solutions faster. ## Complex simulation studies on foil and mainsail geometries The AC75 has two t-shaped side foils. The arm is attached to the hull with a moving joint which allows the crew to move the foils in and out of the water according to the sailing mode. On the other end of the arm is the foil itself. The foil has a main airfoil profile section coupled with moving flaps. Internally, enough space must be guaranteed for the systems to operate the flaps. Foil design is challenging because it involves the simulation of myriad geometries in different configurations and under multiple operating conditions - all of which determine boat performance. Foils need to create low drag but generate enough force to enable the boat to lift at the start and fly during the race. Righting moment is required to balance the heeling moment of the sails. At higher speeds, cavitation can cause significant loss in performance. Stability is fundamental, especially during maneuvers. In the first stage, hydrodynamic performance is computed using a low-fidelity solver that takes into account the different operating conditions - namely speed, sailing mode and position in the water. In the second stage, the full 3D geometry is designed and evaluated using CFD simulations. High-fidelity simulations can’t be used directly in the first stage of development due to lengthy computational times. The sail plan is composed of the mainsail and a jib or code zero, which are interchangeable. All dimensions are restricted by rules, so engineers can optimize the shape within specific limits. The mainsail is a twin skin sail that acts like an airfoil. By adjusting mast rotation, twist and boom position, the 3D geometry of the mainsail can be tuned for different wind speeds and sailing modes foils, the aerodynamic forces are tuned to generate lift, maintaining momentum and low drag. ## Getting foil and sail design just right American Magic engineers are using several simulation software for the foil and sail design which consists of three steps: geometry definition, force computation and boat speed estimation. The entire process is automated in modeFRONTIER. Multiple workflows handle input modifications, the execution of different tools and file and data exchange. Mares, developed by Airbus, handles the geometry generation of the airfoil and the flap, considering different combinations. Hydrodynamic forces generated by the foil, lift, drag and momentum, as well as cavitation speed are obtained through CFD simulations. The designers use a low fidelity 1D potential-based code in the initial phases to evaluate multiple configurations in a small amount of time. American Magic uses a RANS-based tool to perform high fidelity 3D simulations in the final refinement and optimization phase. Both Mares and the CFD tools are coupled with modeFRONTIER using Easydriver nodes. This enables them to couple their in-house tools using input and output files and customize execution scripts. Geometry consistency is guaranteed by constraints that filter out weird shapes and meet requirements for internal cabling and mechanisms as well as cavitation limits. The main goal of the optimization is to minimize drag for specific lift values. It isn’t enough to understand the efficacy of a foil shape. It’s important to understand how the boat behaves. An in-house Velocity Prediction Program (VPP) software estimates the overall boat performance at different wind speeds and sailing modes. The software uses forces generated by foils and sails to find the overall boat equilibrium and predict boat velocity. A nested modeFRONTIER workflow handles different operating conditions. These are sequentially run, using internal loops to compute the global performance of the design. Multiple operations are handled in parallel to make the most of computational resources. Once the forces are solved, these are passed on to the VPP calculation. Foil and sail design share most of the process and simulation tools but defining the geometry is more complex. The mainsail is divided into several sections where each section can have a different shape based on input values. On top of this, optimal adjustments for every shape need to be calculated. This results in large numbers of configurations which are run to find the best design. It’s fundamental to formulate constraints based on maneuverability, considering adjustments that are feasible for the crew - optimal solutions have no meaning if they are too complex to be performed during the race. Each design phase requires a different optimization strategy. In early stages, genetic algorithms guarantee robustness to find the global optimum in a large design domain. In the last phase, it’s important to cut optimization time - conventional techniques aren’t feasible. Therefore, multi-strategy algorithms are used in combination with advanced initialization techniques to speed up the whole optimization process. ## American Magic and ESTECO - partners in innovation The American Magic design team relied on ESTECO technology in the design and optimization of the boat. Paolo Motta, Performance Prediction Engineer says, “The AC75 is a complex racing boat with interacting subsystems. This makes the design process a challenging and time-consuming task. Using modeFRONTIER process automation, intelligent algorithms and decision making capabilities enables us to decrease foil optimization time from 3 weeks to 4 days. This gives us time to discuss and think about present challenges and develop new solutions”. According to Arthur Rozand, Performance Prediction Engineer, “The key benefit of using modeFRONTIER is to have a suite of tools in one place. In this way it’s easy to manage design and optimization from the exploratory phase to post-processing and decision making. Time is a constraint in development. With modeFRONTIER, we have the flexibility to tailor the strategy. For example, in the early stages of development, DOE strategies and the sensitivity analysis tool help us understand which design variables are the most important. In the final stage of development we use multi-strategy algorithms and advanced charts to select the best design.” “Our partnership with ESTECO is bringing in great results.” says Giorgio Provinciali, Velocity Prediction Program (VPP) Lead, “Working side-by-side with ESTECO engineers enables us to pool our respective expertise to get the most out of modeFRONTIER”.
Success story
Best performance of blast furnace with material charge optimization
Using modeFRONTIER coupled with Rocky DEM to design a better deflector while saving up to 130 hours of computational time The Arvedi Group turned to the University of Trieste to find a solution to the uneven material distribution inside the hopper of the blast furnace in Trieste, Italy. The Mechanical Engineering Department investigated the problem and used modeFRONTIER to optimize the design of a new deflector ensuring a better distribution of the materials. Exploiting the ESTECO integration and process automation technology they coupled modeFRONTIER with Rocky DEM software to accelerate the simulation process of the material distribution. Using the proprietary algorithms available in modeFRONTIER, they were also able to find the optimal design for a new deflector. ## Challenge The project concerned the charging process of coke coal and iron ore inside the hopper. The different materials formed piles and pitches, leading to a lower performance of the plant. The uneven material distribution inside the hopper caused variations in the temperature profile, gas flow, and gas composition. To solve this problem modeFRONTIER was coupled with Rocky DEM to get a better understanding of materials behavior and optimize the design of the deflector. The integration with modeFRONTIER also allowed to meet the time constraints, reducing the computational time for each simulation. ## Solution This project was developed in two phases. The first phase concerned the calibration of Rocky DEM parameters and the simulation of hopper charge. The second phase consisted in optimizing the geometry of a new deflector for the charging process.For the calibration process, they used the parameters of Discrete Element Method as inputs in modeFRONTIER, such as particle- particle static friction and rolling resistance. The repose angle of simulated material was used as output. For the device optimization, a sensitivity analysis with Uniform Latin Hypercube allowed to run 90 designs and identify the most important design variables. Engineers then optimized three different geometries, taking these geometrical variables as inputs. The outputs were based on the material distribution, calculated by virtually splitting the hopper into 12 sectors and performing statistical analysis on the particles found in each. These values were used to define the two objectives and the constraints of the optimization. They used the ESTECO proprietary pilOPT algorithm to run the three optimization studies. Thanks to the autonomous mode they could evaluate more than 1000 designs in just a few weeks, without having to set any parameters and with remarkable benefits in terms of time. Benefits Thanks to a user-friendly graphical user interface, modeFRONTIER helped automate the simulation process. Without modeFRONTIER, engineers would have had to manually change the geometry of the deflector for every simulation, with significant waste of time. With modeFRONTIER they were able to save up to 130 hours of computational time. Finally, by automating the process, design engineers could launch the optimization and avoid the painstaking process of manually combining the output from multiple applications.
Success story
IVECO S-WAY truck: perfecting cab design to maximize driving comfort
IVECO relies on ESTECO technology to innovate its simulation-driven product development process. IVECO engineers combine the use of CAD and CAE solvers within modeFRONTIER workflow to automatically execute parametric simulations across a wide spectrum of disciplines: structural calculation (crash, durability, strength), fluid dynamics, NVH (Noise, Vibration, Harshness) and vehicle dynamics. On top of the automated simulation process, they apply optimization algorithms to achieve better vehicle designs with increased performance at reduced production costs. ## Challenge The IVECO S-WAY is a complete transport solution which provides excellent life on board conditions to drivers. With a brand-new cab designed to enhance aerodynamic performance and increase fuel efficiency, engineers at IVECO had to completely rethink the suspension system to improve the comfort standard level. In fact, one of the main challenges of the project was to evaluate the cab comfort before the construction of any prototype. Consequently, they made use of multi-body simulation and optimization techniques to verify the overall behavior of the cab by defining the correct set of stiffness and damping parameters for the suspension elastic components. Solution A 3D truck model was generated in MSC Adams/Car to simulate the behavior of mechanical components (cab body, suspension, actuator, tractor and trailer frame) on different proving grounds as pave, patched asphalt and speed bump. The simulation model was directly integrated in modeFRONTIER workflow to automatically tune the suspension properties, with the aim of optimizing output parameters related to vibration, cab movements and comfort. An initial Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis allowed to identify the correlation between design variables and system responses, with the aim of simplifying the multi-body simulation model to be further validated in the optimization process. Finally, the MOGA-II algorithm, available in modeFRONTIER, enabled engineers to pick the right designs with minimized cab vibration on different paths. Benefits “We took advantage of modeFRONTIER software solution to automatically execute a huge number of simulations and evaluate thousands suspension system designs within few weeks. The Parallel Coordinate Chart enabled us to easily plot several variables and visualize the distribution of the designs in an effective manner. The optimization process led us to achieve up to 10% reduction in cab vibration compared to the baseline. Moreover, the results achieved with modeFRONTIER allowed us to identify specific properties of dampers, springs and bushes that have been considered during the prototype phase of the IVECO S-WAY truck development” said Andrea Morello, Performance Engineer and CAE Senior Analyst, IVECO - CNH Industrial.
Success story
High-Rise Office Building achieves zero energy use with optimization-driven design technology
Evangelia Despoina Giouri, MSc graduated from the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of Delft University of Technology, used modeFRONTIER to assess the energy performance and thermal comfort towards zero energy high-rise buildings. ## Challenge Currently, 40% of the European Union’s final energy consumption and 36% of greenhouse gas emissions are attributed to buildings. New strategies to design nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs) are essential to meet climate targets set by the European Energy Performance of Building directive. This research applies process automation and optimization technologies to develop a new integrated simulation methodology to design nZEBs in a Mediterranean climate. This concept has been applied to a high-rise office building featuring photovoltaic panels integrated into the facade walls, located in the hot-dry climate of Athens, Greece. ## Solution The goal is to define which construction parameters have the highest impact on annual energy demand and thermal comfort in the building. The simulation process was created in modeFRONTIER workflow coupling Rhino/Grasshopper modeling environment and EnergyPlus software to simulate energy consumption and daylight illuminance levels. Two optimization runs have been executed to investigate the influence of building parameters that can have a contradictory impact on cooling, lighting, heating energy loads, and four different facade orientations. ## Benefits The genetic algorithm NSGA-II allowed performing 1000 evaluations in order to find the trade-off solutions for several design issues affecting energy performance and thermal comfort levels. “We were able to achieve 33% reduction on annual building’s energy consumption (from 109.12 kWh/m2 to 73.13 kWh/m2) compared to standard data provided by the current Greek legislation. Moreover, modeFRONTIER engineering and data intelligence capabilities enable us to visualize optimization trends and perform sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of the various facade parameters on the energy use and adaptive thermal comfort performance of the building” said Evangelia Despoina Giouri, MSc graduated from the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of Delft University of Technology.
Success story
Takenaka Corporation automates simulation based architectural design
Takenaka Corporation offers comprehensive services worldwide across the entire spectrum of space creation from site location and planning to design and construction as well as building maintenance. Recently, structural engineers and computational architects at Takenaka Corporation Technical Research Institute have started to apply an optimization-driven design approach in their architectural and engineering projects with the aim of exploring and obtaining innovative design solutions in a shorter time. They chose modeFRONTIER software to optimize the 3D model of a new complex-shaped office building in Osaka, Japan. ## Challenge Responding to a request of a client - a steel manufacturer - asking for a new office building featuring their fabrication technologies, Takenaka Corporation designed a steel pavilion-like office building which also facilitates and accelerates the communication between employees. Several requirements were considered to perform parametric studies on 3D building models: from maximizing the connections between rooms and expanding office space to designing a stunning atrium. Facing these challenges by manually conducting simulations is quite time-consuming, leading to delays in project schedules. Architects at Takenaka Corporation look at multi-objective optimization as an effective methodology to quickly generate creative and innovative designs while meeting client’s expectations ## Solution The shape of the building was generated through the 3D Voronoi component available in Rhino3D/Grasshopper. The 3D geometry was integrated in modeFRONTIER workflow to automatically adjust the Voronoi parameters and slab levels, with the aim of optimizing conflicting outputs of the model (area of rooms, floor heights, connection between rooms, angle of surfaces) while also considering required room area and floor height as constraints. After performing an initial Design of Experiments (DOE) to assess the correlation between slab levels and other parameters, the optimization process was guided by the pilOPT algorithm available in modeFRONTIER to maximize the connection between rooms, minimize the sharp angle surfaces of office area and maximize the sharp angle surface of the hall. ## Benefits “With modeFRONTIER, we run and evaluate 3000 designs in just one day instead of losing weeks doing it manually. Moreover, the easy to use interface and data analysis & visualization tools enabled our designers to process the results faster and select their favorite designs for further studies. Finally, we look forward to demonstrating the potential of combining modeFRONTIER workflow with BRAIN, our in-house structural design software that we use in most of our projects” said Takuma Kawakami, Structural Engineer and Computational Architect at Takenaka Corporation.
Success story
Boost Signal and Enhance Antenna Reception Performance
Guaranteeing effective signal transmission with modeFRONTIER Antenna design relies on understanding of directivity, impedance matching, radiation efficiency, wave polarization, frequency range and orientation specifications. These imply complex electromagnetic simulation analysis which can be executed by employing computer-aided optimization techniques instead of opting for time-consuming trial and error approach. ## Challenge The present study focuses on optimizing the shape parameters of a GSM dual band mobile phone antenna to guarantee effective transmission and reception while reducing the loss of power in the signal returned at specific frequencies. The optimization case requires the satisfaction of multiple criteria at the same time. It is necessary both to minimize the return loss amplitude of the signal and the difference of the tuning frequencies at 920 and 1860Mhz. ## Solution The geometrical structure of the antenna was modeled in Catia V5 by setting four parameters (cut position, cut width, scale ratio and antenna thickness). Then, the model was imported in CST Microwave Studio to perform accurate analysis of high frequency range. modeFRONTIER has been used to automate the entire process by integrating the CAD model in the workflow and running electromagnetic simulations. The optimization task was driven by the pilOPT algorithm which evaluated different antenna design configurations with the purpose of minimizing signal return loss and tuning the frequencies. ## Benefits pilOPT algorithm reached optimum solutions after few design simulations. The execution of the algorithm in autonomous mode allowed to obtain the best signals of the perfectly tuned antenna just with 100 simulations performed in few hours. This methodology may be extended to any component of an electronic system (including geometrical, material and operating parameters ).
Success story
Environmentally friendly aircraft stretches its wings with modeFRONTIER
Aerodynamic performance enhanced by 2.5% and wing weight reduced by 4% In an ambitious collaborative venture, Leonardo is heading the Green Regional Aircraft (GRA) design team of the The Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative, committed to developing environmentally-friendly aircraft. The future of domestic air travel lies in: weight reduction, aerodynamic efficiency, high level operational performance, compliance with emission standards and respect of noise limits. ## Challenge Targeting multiple objectives such as lowering aircraft drag, wing weight and environmental impact of lower speed conditions (i.e. take-off and landing), enhances overall environmental performance, measured by fuel consumption and noise generation. Seeking the most promising solution for this new generation aircraft, two wing shapes were studied using modeFRONTIER optimization. A “thin” configuration was selected to analyze aerodynamic performance, without any structural restrictions to airfoil thickness; a “thick” configuration was chosen reduce the weight of the wing. ## Solution modeFRONTIER integrated complex objectives, achieving remarkable enhancement for both wing configurations, while still complying with Top Level Aircraft Requirements (TLAR). The design automation process piloted by the modeFRONTIER workflow generated 20,000 design profiles of the 2D wing shape, while incorporating aerodynamic and structural analysis using Leonardo in-house codes. Once the optimal 2D profile was selected, CFD computations were validated by employing a suitable parametric Catia 3D wing-body. Good aerodynamic results were maintained in the 3D analysis. ## Benefits “modeFRONTIER has proven to be an effective tool for the design team, identifying feasible solutions and achieving a 2.5% enhancement of aerodynamic performance and a 4% wing weight reduction”, says Enrica Marentino, CFD Specialist at Leonardo. modeFRONTIER successfully streamlined the two-step optimization process for wing shape configuration and its multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA-II) was profitably used to solve the optimization problem. Correlations among the aerodynamic parameters were explored thanks to modeFRONTIER statistical tools, providing deep insights which helped set up the optimization strategy effectively. The MCDM tool provided a useful framework towards attaining a ranking for the Pareto front solutions, supporting the design team in determining the best outcome. “The optimized configurations, while still matching TLAR requirements, determined substantial advantages compared to the initial wing profiles”, says Enrica Marentino.
Success story
BASF Catalysts solutions meet exhaust emissions standards with modeFRONTIER
Using modeFRONTIER to optimize exhaust aftertreatment systems BASF’s Catalysts division is the world’s leading supplier of environmental and process catalysts. Responding to a request from a customer - a truck manufacturer - BASF researched to provide an alternative technology capable of reducing catalysts costs and improving the performance of the current Euro VI production exhaust aftertreatment system. BASF proprietary exhaust simulation models were integrated in modeFRONTIER software, with the aim of optimizing the operational parameters for accurate emissions prediction. ## Challenge The global automotive industry faces enormous challenges from increasingly tightening emissions legislations. Regulatory differences between European, Asian and American markets enhance complexity while vehicle manufacturers are constantly seeking to reduce development cycle times. There is a continuous demand for efficient strategies to develop cost effective solutions that meet regional emissions regulations. As a result, simulation techniques for exhaust aftertreatment system has gained popularity. Engineers at BASF focused on developing a model-based simulation for an exhaust system comprising a diesel oxidation catalyst in order to investigate the trade-off between cost and catalytic performance. Besides the minimization of the tailpipe NOx emissions by simulating a transient homologation cycle (WHTC), several functionalities of the oxidation catalyst like NO and hydrocarbon oxidation needed to be optimized in parallel. ## Solution An effective model based development toolchain was developed building upon BASF proprietary exhaust catalyst models to simulate accurate emissions prediction. Four catalyst design parameters, considered as major cost drivers, were investigated in modeFRONTIER multiobjective optimization platform. As a first step, performing Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis allowed to identify the most important parameters and explore sensitivity of the system performance. Consequently, the optimization task was driven by the MOGA-II, the genetic algorithm included in modeFRONTIER, to minimize catalyst cost and tailpipe emissions. ## Benefits “Our simulation toolchain combined with modeFRONTIER optimization capabilities led to evaluate 500 catalyst system designs within two weeks. Manufacturing and testing few prototypes would have taken us months and significant resources due to the expensive precious metals incorporated and additional operational costs. Despite the large amount of data, modeFRONTIER allowed to quickly rationalize and visualize results in a smart and efficient way. The Parallel Coordinate Chart enabled us to identify the suitable prototype candidates capable to exactly match particular cost and performance targets based on customer preferences. We look forward to demonstrating the benefits of the toolchain for other customer applications” said Dr. Stefan Kah, responsible for Application Engineering Modeling at BASF Catalysts Germany GmbH.
Success story
Lucid Motors boosts electric vehicle performance with modeFRONTIER
Performing multi-objective inverter cooling system optimization with modeFRONTIER California-based electric car company, Lucid Motors, applies innovative engineering, design and technology to define a new class of premium electric vehicle. Their first Lucid Air all-electric sedan, with up to 400 mile range battery options and 1,000 horsepower twin-motor configuration with all-wheel drive, is to be delivered in 2019. In preparation for production, Lucid Air prototypes are undergoing a rigorous development program. modeFRONTIER has been used - together with other applications - to optimize the design of an inverter with the aim of enhancing efficiency and minimize failure rates. ## Challenge An inverter is an electronic device that converts the direct current (DC) stored in the battery into alternating current (AC) and send electricity to the three phases of the AC induction motors. Overheating is the most critical issue beside vibration, humidity and dust when designing a drive inverter for hybrid and pure electric vehicles. Its efficiency is instead driven by low chipto-coolant thermal conductivity together with temperature balance and low pumping pressure. The Lucid Motors team focused on designing an inverter cooling system that keeps the temperature under control. ## Solution Starting from the conceptual design of a cooling channel with different configurations, engineers at Lucid Motors performed different Design of Experiments (DOE) evaluations and sensitivity analysis using a fully-parametric CFD model with modeFRONTIER, which enabled them to find optimal design candidates for temperature reduction, lowering pressure and minimizing channel size. “After deciding on an optimum channel solution, we went further and optimized the manifold design by including a mesh-morphing step in the modeFRONTIER process integration workflow. The objectives there were to keep pressure variations low and reduce velocity variation”, said David Moseley, Director, Powertrain, Lucid Motors. ## Benefits modeFRONTIER provided an environment to identify inverter optimal designs while enhancing efficiency and minimizing failure rates. The use of modeFRONTIER enabled Lucid engineers to make more power available to the inverter and increase alternative current from 1200 to 1500A. The ESTECO Technology also supported the Lucid Air development in optimizing suspension components and enhancing the thermal performance for the motor cooling.
Success story
modeFRONTIER helps Azimut Benetti optimize yacht propeller performance
Using modeFRONTIER to perform multi-objective cavitating propeller optimization Azimut Benetti Group is the world’s largest network producing megayachts and leading private group in the luxury yacht industry. Azimut-Benetti’s R&D Centre develops unique technologies, for an effortless and safe navigating experience. The Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering Unit (DITEN Department) of Genoa University work jointly with DETRA Custom Propellers and Azimut Benetti’s R&D Centre, using modeFRONTIER to optimize the design of a custom propeller for a high- speed Azimut Benetti 95 RPH yacht. ## Challenge The design of a propeller is always a trade-off between competing objectives and constraints: maximizing the propulsion efficiency and ship speed while avoiding cavitation and maintaining a sufficient blade strength. The traditional lifting line / surface methodologies define the propeller shape by including simplified geometric assumptions that make them not suitable for modern fast propellers design. The application of more accurate flow solvers and the automatic investigation, possible through the parametric description of the geometry (unconventional combinations of pitch, camber, or, for instance, local hydrofoil shapes), proves to be a successful design alternative for a high-speed propeller. ## Solution Following this new approach, the optimization of a reference propeller with modified rake distribution was driven by the MOGA-II, the genetic algorithm included in the automation workflow in modeFRONTIER. The experimental data collected at the cavitation tunnel confirmed the reliability of both the Boundary Elements Method and RANSE numerical approaches. A dedicated full-scale sea trials, performed with propellers manufactured by Detra, showed that the cruise speed achieved with the optimized propeller is 1 kn higher than the baseline propeller speed, geometry by while the cavitating behavior was also significantly enhanced. “The result is remarkable, especially keeping in mind that the increase of cruise speed, together with the enhancement of comfort onboard, is crucial to the perception of luxury yacht customers”, said Francesco Serra, R&D Office, Azimut Benetti Group. ## Benefits modeFRONTIER helped build an optimization framework to interact with the parametric description of the geometry to define each new blade shape and employ flow solvers to quantify how each propeller fulfills the constraints and the objectives of the design. “Starting from a set of 48 blade parameters to alter the reference propeller geometry, the use of MOGA-II algorithm allowed to compute and test 50,000 different geometries in about 5 days to achieve a satisfactory Pareto convergence and choose optimal candidates (one for any rake distribution) for RANSE analyses” said Michele Viviani, Associated Professor at DITEN Department, Genoa University.